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Intermediate bulk container. A large bag, box or other container capable of transporting, storing, and discharging one-half ton (1,000 lbs) or more of material.
Rigid and flexible intermediate bulk shipping containers (IBC's) that come in plastic, steel and composite. Different sizes are available.
See injection blow molding.
Inside diameter of a container or container part, ordinarily of the container shell or body.
Relative susceptibility of plastics to fracture by shock as indicated by the energy expended by a standard pendulum type impact machine. The ability to withstand mechanical abuse in service, as related to dropping and impacts.
(1) The ability of a material to withstand shock loading. (2) The amount of energy needed to fracture, under shock loading, a specified test specimen in a specified manner.
The British gallon, equal to 277.274 cubic inches, or about 4.8 U.S. quarts.
An indicator stands as a quantitative or qualitative proxy for an issue or characteristic an organization wants or needs to measure
Core indicator: A core indicator is quantifiable or qualitative representation of a measurable issue or characteristic considered to be of interest to most stakeholders. In aggregate, core indicators provide a robust evaluation of the big picture.
Correlating Indicator: A correlating indicator is a quantifiable or qualitative representation of a measurable issue or characteristic considered to be of significant importance but may not be of interest to all stakeholders. Correlating indicators provide additional information relative to but outside the scope of the core and supplemental indicators.
Supplemental Indicator: A supplemental indicator is a quantifiable or qualitative representation of a measurable issue or characteristic which when measured, provides data that augments a core indicator, generally providing a more specific or detailed measure of an aspect of a core indicator.
A sealing technique in which excitation by means of high frequency electric impulse causes materials to bond. Usually associated with inner seals whether they are applied separately or as an integral part (metal or plastic) of the closure.
A two-stage process of plastic bottle manufacturing where a preform or parison is injection molded. The bottle finish is formed at this time. The preform is then transferred to a blow mold where the bottle takes its final shape. A video of the process is located here.
A mold into which a plastic resin is introduced by pressure from an exterior heated cylinder.
A molding process whereby a heat softened plastic resin is forced from a heating cylinder into a relatively cool cavity which gives the product a desired shape.
Non-impact method of printing whereby tiny drops of ink are formed into letter, number or other configuration and sprayed on to the object or surface to be printed. Can be used for high speed printing. A major application is for code marking beverage cans.
Process by which preprinted labels are placed in the mold before the plastic is injected into the mold. This form of labeling is very economical for large manufacturing runs, as it does not require any additional processes on the production line or post production decorating.
An extra seal of comprising a sheet that is resistant to water vapor or vapor from some chemical, and adhered to the top end of a container below the regular cover or closure, to give added protection to the contents, such as: hygroscopic materials like soluble coffee, volatile chemicals such as chloroform, or creams and ointments containing volatile ingredients. The added protection includes: barrier to movement of water vapor or volatile chemicals and perfumes, and protection against tampering, contamination and leakage.
Threads on the neck finish of bottles that are not continuous, having gaps at seam areas to avoid scratching internal coatings on closures.
As applied to plastics, refers to bombardment with a variety of subatomic particles, generally alpha-, beta-, or gamma rays. Atomic irradiation has been used to initiate polymerization and copolymerization of plastics and in some cases to bring about changes in the physical properties of a plastic material.
Stock and custom plastic jars in P/P, P/S, P/E, PVC, PET, PETG, SAN, HDPE and LDPE. Decorating options are available on most items.
A champagne bottle holding the same amount contained in four ordinary champagne bottles (102-2/5 oz).
Tool or fixture that is used for holding a component that is to be worked on during the manufacturing, decorating and assembly processes.
A bottle, usually of half-gallon or larger capacity, fitted with a handle.
Knocked down. Applied to boxes, cartons, cases, etc., which are stored or shipped flat, that is before the package is set up for loading.
Extruded 75 gauge saran film laminated directly to Kraft lined ì pulpboard with a wax coating on the saran. There is always a ì full wax coating on this liner.
Indented or crimped portion on the skirt at the top of the cap for holding liner in cap, used as a grip for applying cap and also for a better hold or grip for removing. Also provides non-skid surface during threading operation.
A chemical wood pulp made by the sulphate process, or paper or paperboard made from such pulp. It is brown in color and is the strongest pulp product made from wood.
That portion of the body of a container to which labels are affixed or decoration imprinted.
Self-sticking, bar code, UPC, IBM, mylar, cloth, color, aluminum, wrap-around, spot, cling, sleeve, pressure sensitive, heat transfer, DOT, in-mold, expanded content, holographic, rotating, inverted vertical hanging, medical, shipping, international wordless, paper, booklet, production, inventory, and shrink labels. Printing and decorating options are available.
Labels that expand for the printing of consumer directions for use. Available plain or printed, in a variety of colors. Hot stamping and embossing are also available.
Various services offered include analytical chemistry, toxicology/pharmacology, immunology, biocompatibility, non-destructive micro-analysis, pyrolysis, thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, sterility assurance, environmental, biotechnical and industrial hygiene testing. Capable of analyzing textiles, biologicals, particles, metals, ceramics, minerals, polymers and semiconductors.
Vials, flasks, funnels, beakers, hot plates, tubes, tube racks, digital and fixed pipets, pipet and filter tips, stoppers, centrifuge ware, clamps, holders, siphons, trays, fume hoods, dispensers, microscope slides, culture dishes, syringes, incubators, water testing supplies, burets, spatulas, specimen cups, dropper assemblies, labels, ampules, and calibration equipment.
The sealing surface of a glass or plastic bottle.
Also called flat land seal. The Land Seal requires that a flat surface molded into the closure makes contact against the top of the sealing surface (land) of a container. This seal works best when the closure contains a liner material. It is best suited for threaded closures.
A general defect. A large fold on the outside of the bottle. Also called "wrinkle."
Latent energy refers to energy stored in packaging material that may be recovered and valorized.
Low density polyethylene. LDPE is similar to HDPE in composition. It is less rigid and generally less chemically resistant than HDPE, but more translucent. Used primarily for squeeze applications. LDPE is significantly more expensive than HDPE, but will yield a glossy bottle when produced in colors.
A continuous-belt oven for the annealing of glass, and for fusing of ceramic color on to glass.
Closures with clear inserts intended for cosmetic jars and round or square cosmetic pots.
An edge or side defect. A small check which appears in the lettering.
A method of holding a lid on a full open head drum by means of a lever-operated tightening device or ring that can be locked in closed position.
Lubricant Finish (LF). Lubricant finish treatment is used to ì reduce excessive removal torque build-up found with plain vinyl and P/E coated papers. These papers have a tendency to cold flow after the closure is applied, causing removal torque build up, which is is accentuated with time and temperature. The LF coating is effective in minimizing this problem. The LF coating is also used with Saran film, which has a tendency to grasp the glass sealing surface during capping. This results in erratic capping performance and false application values. Closures which appear to be on tight are reduced to approximately zero removal torque with only slight impact on handling. To overcome this tendency and insure good application and removal torque performance, the LF coating of wax treatment is used.
LCA is the "compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental benefits and impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle" (ISO 14040:2006). It is a rigorous approach to assessing environmental aspects and potential impacts of industrial or other systems. LCA enables the estimation of the cumulative impacts resulting from all stages in the product life cycle, often including impacts not considered in more traditional analyses (e.g., raw material extraction, material transportation, ultimate product disposal, etc.). The LCA methodology may be applied on individual phases of a life cycle, e.g., a manufacturing process. Partial life cycle assessments are called cradle-to-gate or gate-to-gate. A full life cycle assessment is known as cradle-to-grave assessment.
Cradle-to-gate: Cradle to gate is a partial life cycle assessment process that includes the resource acquisition and production/manufacturing phases until a specified point (the gate), depending on who is doing the assessment. In terms of packaging, cradle-to-gate measurement may, for instance, include the growth, harvest or extraction and processing of raw materials, processing of recycled or reused materials, production of final packaging materials, conversion of final packaging materials into packaging components, assembly of packaging components into units of packaging and filling of packaging components, as well as the transport functions that are required to move materials, components and units of packaging from one supply chain partner to another up until product is put into the packaging.
Gate-to-Gate: Gate-to-Gate is a partial life cycle assessment process of only one phase of the life cycle. In terms of packaging, gate-to-gate measurement may, for instance, assess the physical and functional attributes or conditions related to packaging that occur during the period of time a supply chain partner owns or is responsible for packaging material, packaging components or units of packaging up to the point of transfer to the next partner in the supply chain.
Cradle-to-Grave: Cradle-to-Grave is a full life cycle assessment that includes resource acquisition to final disposition. In terms of packaging, cradle-to-grave measurement would include the growth, harvest or extraction and processing of raw materials, processing of recycled or reused materials, production of final packaging materials, conversion of final packaging materials into packaging components, assembly of packaging components into units of packaging, filling of packaging components, use of packaging and end-of-life management of packaging/packaging materials. It would also include any transport functions that are required to move raw, recycled, reused or final packaging materials, packaging components and units of packaging from one supply chain partner to another. But, it would not include transport of packaging that contains product.
Life cycle inventory data is the data collected or derived during a life cycle inventory analysis. A life cycle inventory analysis is the process of examining all the inputs and outputs in a product system's life cycle, beginning with what the product is composed of, where those materials came from, where they go and the inputs and outputs related to those component materials during their lifetime. The purpose of the inventory analysis is to quantify what comes in and what goes out, including the energy and material associated with materials extraction, product manufacture and assembly, distribution, use and disposal and the environmental emissions that result.
A bottom defect. A localized thin area in the bottom of the container.
The ability of a plastic item to resist fading when exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light. Nearly all plastics tend to darken when exposed.
An edge of side defect. A defect characterized by thin spots in the side of the ware.
In the manufacture of closures, a disc of paper, cork, composition, etc., retained in a closure to provide a sealing surface against the finish of a container.
A type of paperboard used in making corrugated cartons.
Liner falling out of cap; usually due to shrinkage, loss of moisture or under sized punching.
A one-component thermoplastic closure incorporating a sealing "fin" which, when applied to a container with the appropriate finish, seals most liquids including those that are volatile.
Trash can, drum, bin, hamper, pail, and disposable liners.
Stock and custom closure liners, including teflon-faced silicone, butyl, extruded and co-extruded, laminated, and vented liners. Sizes range from 8mm to over 120mm. Some of the liner material options include pressure sensitive, sure seal, 3M top tab, pulp/poly, foil, foil seal, and heat induction.
The extreme outer edge of the top of a container intended to facilitate pouring.
Decorating of flat surfaces by means of plates. Lithography is the prime method for decorating cans, but must be done on the sheet steel before the can is formed.
Linear low density polyethylene.
A general defect. Fine vertical laps on surfaces.
Metal closing ring around the rim of a full-removable-head container intended to retain the cover and form a seal. The ring is a circular modified "V" or "U" section channel, the ends of which are drawn together by means of a bolt and the periphery thus shortened, to develop the closure.
A neck defect. A neck which has been stretched longer than that specified.
Less than truck load. An order which will not fill the minimum standard weight required for truck load freight rate, which usually means that the customer must pay an LTL freight rate.
(1) Extensions around the circumference of a lid which are crimped down to hold the lid securely in place against the body of the container. (2) A small indentation or raised portion on the surface of a plastic bottle, provided as a means of indexing the bottle for operations such as multi-pass decorating or labeling. (3) A metal fastener used for securing the top or bottom heads of a fibre drum, steel drum or metal pail to the side-wall.
Interrupted thread finishes with the GPI finish number designations in the 2000 series.
A cover for metal drum or pail, with extensions around the circumference that are bent down to hold the cover securely in place against the container body.
Also called Lug/Twist. A glass container finish identified by intermittent horizontal tapering protruding ridges of glass that permit the specially shaped edges of the closure to slide between the protruding lugs and fasten securely with a partial turn. These lug finishes have the GPI designations in the 2000 series.
Intermittent thread design closure - commonly used for glass food containers.
Light Wax (LW). Light wax treatment is generally used to improve the moisture vapor barrier characteristics of a given liner facing. The type of wax used for this treatment also acts as a lubricant in the same manner that LF coating of wax does.